Papież Franciszek I CV

Pope Francis

Coat_of_arms_of_Jorge_Mario_Bergoglio.svg
T
Francis
Papacy began 13 March 2013
Predecessor Benedict XVI
Orders
Ordination 13 December 1969
by Ramón José Castellano
Consecration 27 June 1992
by Antonio Quarracino
Created Cardinal 21 February 2001
Personal details
Birth name Jorge Mario Bergoglio
Born 17 December 1936 (age 76)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nationality Argentine
Vatican)
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Vatican City
Previous post
Motto Miserando atque eligendo
(“Pitiable but chosen”)
Coat of arms

Francis (Latin: Franciscus I, PP. ; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio on 17 December 1936) is the 266th[1] and current pope of the Catholic Church, elected on 13 March 2013. In that role, he is both the leader of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of the Vatican City State. From 1998 until his election as pope, he served as the Archbishop of Buenos Aires, and was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Contents

Early life

Jorge Bergoglio[2] was born in Buenos Aires, one of the five children of Italian immigrants, railway worker[1] Mario Jose Bergoglio and Regina Maria Sivori, a housewife.

He received a master’s degree in chemistry at the University of Buenos Aires, and then studied at the seminary in Villa Devoto.[3] He entered the Society of Jesus on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo San José in San Miguel, and then taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada in Santa Fe, and the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.[4]

Pre-papal career

He was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel),[5] a seminary in San Miguel, Buenos Aires. Bergoglio attained the position of novice master there and became professor of theology.

Impressed with his leadership skills, the Society of Jesus promoted Bergoglio and he served as provincial for Argentina from 1973 to 1979.[6] He was transferred in 1980 to become the rector of the seminary in San Miguel where he had studied. He served in that capacity until 1986. He completed his doctoral dissertation in Germany and returned to his homeland to serve as confessor and spiritual director in Córdoba.

Papal styles of
Pope Francis
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father

Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and was ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca, with His Eminence, Antonio Cardinal Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator. He went on to succeed Quarracino as Archbishop of Buenos Aires on 28 February 1998. He was concurrently named ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Argentina, who lacked their own prelate.

Bergoglio succeeded Cardinal Quarracino on 28 February 1998. He was concurrently named ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Argentina, who lacked their own prelate. Pope John Paul II summoned the newly named archbishop to the consistory of 21 February 2001 in Vatican City and elevated Bergoglio with the papal honors of a cardinal. He was named to the Cardinal-Priest of Saint Robert Bellarmino.

Cardinal

Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio greets President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, December, 2007.

As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to several administrative positions in the Roman Curia. He served on the Congregation of Clergy, Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Bergoglio became a member of the Commission for Latin America and the Family Council.

As cardinal, Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism and a commitment to social justice.[7] A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the palatial bishop’s residence. He gave up his chauffeured limousine in favor of public transportation,[8] and he reportedly cooked his own meals.

On the death of Pope John Paul II, Bergoglio was considered one of the papabile cardinals. He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI. It has been reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea[9] that the cardinals should not vote for him.[10] Earlier, he had participated in the funeral of Pope John Paul II and acted as a regent alongside the College of Cardinals, governing the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church during the interregnum sede vacante period.

During the 2005 Synod of Bishops, he was elected a member of the Post-Synodal council. Catholic journalist John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 Conclave. An unauthorized diary of uncertain authenticity released in September 2005[11] confirmed that Bergoglio was the runner-up and main challenger of Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave. The purported diary of the anonymous cardinal claimed Bergoglio received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot.

On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected President of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–2008) by a large majority of the Argentine bishops, which according to reports confirms his local leadership and the international prestige earned by his alleged performance in the conclave. He was reelected on November 11, 2008.

Papacy

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Holy See

Cardinal Bergoglio[12] was elected pope on 13 March 2013 at 7:06 p.m,[13] the second day of the 2013 Papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis.[14] Whether this is after St. Francis of Assisi, or after St. Francis Xavier, co-founder of the Society of Jesus, has not yet been publicly confirmed.

Cardinal Bergoglio is the first Jesuit priest chosen to be pope.[15] He is also the first pope from the Americas and the first one from the Southern Hemisphere. Indeed, he is the first non-European pope in over 1,200 years. The last non-European pope, St. Gregory III, was born in Syria and reigned from 731 to 741.[16] Francis is also the first pope since Pope John Paul I to take a previously unused papal name.[citation needed]

Positions on moral and political issues

Abortion, euthanasia, and contraception

Cardinal Bergoglio has encouraged his clergy and laity to oppose both abortion and euthanasia.[17] He supports the use of contraception to prevent the spread of disease.[18]

Homosexuality

He has affirmed church teaching on homosexuality.[19] However he has equated the pursuit of their equal rights[according to whom?] as the devil’s work.[20] He strongly opposed legislation introduced in 2010 by the Argentine Government to allow same-sex marriage, calling it a “real and dire anthropological throwback.”[21] In a letter to the monasteries of Buenos Aires, he wrote: “Let’s not be naïve, we’re not talking about a simple political battle; it is a destructive pretension against the plan of God. We are not talking about a mere bill, but rather a machination of the Father of Lies that seeks to confuse and deceive the children of God.”[22] He has also insisted that adoption by homosexuals is a form of discrimination against children. This position received a rebuke from Argentine president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who said the church’s tone was reminiscent of “medieval times and the Inquisition.”[23]

Poverty and class equality

In 2009, Bergolio said that extreme poverty and the “unjust economic structures that give rise to great inequalities” are violations of human rights and that social debt is “immoral, unjust and illegitimate.”[24] During a 48-hour public servant strike in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio observed the differences between, “poor people who are persecuted for demanding work, and rich people who are applauded for fleeing from justice.”[25]

On the worthiness of individuals to receive the Eucharist

In the Aparecida Document, a joint statement of the bishops of Latin America, Pope Francis I, as Cardinal Bergoglio, commented on the worthiness of individuals to receive the Eucharist. The text states in paragraph 436 that, “We should commit ourselves to ‘eucharistic coherence’, that is, we should be conscious that people cannot receive Holy Communion and at the same time act or speak against the commandments, in particular when abortion, euthanasia, and other serious crimes against life and family are facilitated. This responsibility applies particularly to legislators, governors, and health professionals.” [26] [27] [28]

Relations with the Argentine government

Critics have accused him of ignoring the plight of victims during the country’s military dictatorship from 1976-1983, despite victims and their relatives relating first-hand accounts of torture, death and kidnappings to the priests he supervised as leader of the Jesuit Order.[29]

On 15 April 2005, a human rights lawyer filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the kidnapping by the Navy in May 1976 (during the military dictatorship) of two Jesuit priests.[30] The priests, Orlando Yorio and Francisco Jalics, were found alive five months later, drugged and semi-nude. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the regime that he endorsed their work. Jalics refused to discuss it after moving into seclusion in a German monastery.[31] Horacio Verbitsky, an Argentine investigative journalist and author, wrote a book about this and other related events titled El Silencio: de Paulo VI a Bergoglio: las relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA.[32]

Other functions of Cardinal Bergoglio

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rice-Oxley, Mark (13 March 2013). “Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty”. The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  2. ^ Jorge Bergoglio
  3. ^ Rocca, Francis X (March 13, 2013). “Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio: a profile”. Catholic Herald. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  4. ^ “Pope Francis I: Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio named new Pope”. Baltimore News Journal. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  5. ^ [1]Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel]
  6. ^ http://www.catholic.org/hf/faith/story.php?id=50111
  7. ^ Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave
  8. ^ Toward The Conclave Part III: The Candidates. 2005-04-18. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
  9. ^ “Quasi in lacrime” (almost in tears)
  10. ^ Ecco come andò davvero il Conclave del 2005 lastampa.it (Italian)”. Vaticaninsider.lastampa.it. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  11. ^ (1)[dead link]
  12. ^ FRANCISCUS 13 de marzo de 2013 Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,Dominum Georgium MariumSanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem Bergoglioqui sibi nomen imposuit Franciscum (Archived at WebCite)
  13. ^ http://www.news.va/en/news/habemus-papam-cardinal-bergolio-elected-pope
  14. ^ “Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina Named as New Pope of the Roman Catholic Church”. CNBC. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  15. ^ BBC (13 March 2013). “Argentina’s Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected Pope”. BBC. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  16. ^ Financial Times (13 March 2013). “New Pope is an Argentine”. Financial Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  17. ^ “Le cardinal Bergoglio invite à défendre la culture de la vie avec ardeur”. Zenit.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  18. ^ Segreti, Giulia; Guy Dinmore (March 13, 2013). “Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina elected pope”. Financial Times. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  19. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church Paragraph 2358
  20. ^ InfoBae.com
  21. ^ Padgett, Tim (18 July 2010). “The Vatican and Women: Casting the First Stone”. TIME. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  22. ^ Goñi, Uki (July 15, 2010). “Defying Church, Argentina Legalizes Gay Marriage”. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  23. ^ Allen, Jr., John L. (March 3, 2013). “Papabile of the Day: The Men Who Could Be Pope”. National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  24. ^ “Extreme poverty is also a violation of human rights, says Argentinean cardinal”. Catholic News Agency. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  25. ^ “Argentines protest against pay cuts”. August 8, 2001. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  26. ^ “Aparecida Document Sent to Pontiff”. Zenit.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  27. ^ “Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires Rages Against Abortion “Death Sentence””. LifeSiteNews.com. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  28. ^ “New Pope Francis Called Abortion the “Death Penalty for the Unborn””. LifeNews.com. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  29. ^ “Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the first Jesuit pope, known for pastoral work”. Washington Post. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  30. ^ Los Angeles Times: Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit, 17 April 2005
  31. ^ Pope Francis: A look at the life of the first South American pontiff The Associated Press March 13, 2013
  32. ^ The Silence: from Paulo VI to Bergoglio: secret relations of the Church with the ESMA, Sudamericana (Bs. As.), 2005. ISBN 950-07-2035-3

Additional sources

  • Horacio Verbitsky, ‘El silencio. De Paulo VI a Bergoglio. Las relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA (Sudamericana 2005), ISBN 950-07-2035-3

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Franciscus
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Antonio Quarracino
Archbishop of Buenos Aires
28 February 1998 – 13 March 2013
Vacant
Preceded by
Benedict XVI
Pope
13 March 2013 – present
Incumbent

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