Tupolev Tu-154

http://wn.com/Tupolev_Tu-154M
Name Tu-154
Type Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Soviet Union/Russia
Manufacturer Tupolev
Designer Tupolev Design Bureau
First flight 4 October 1968
Introduced (Aeroflot)
Produced 1968–2011
Status In service
Primary user UTair
More users Yakutia Airlines Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise Tajik Air
Number built 1025
Unit cost $45 million
Variants with their own articles Tupolev Tu-155 }}

 

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|}The Tupolev Tu-154 (; NATO reporting name: Careless) is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay ‘workhorse’ of Soviet and (subsequently) Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world’s landmass and carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries (137.5 million/year or 243.8 billion passenger kilometers in 1990). Having been exported and operated by 17 non-Russian airlines and a number of air forces, it remained the standard domestic route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid 2000s.

With a cruising speed of , the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in operation and has a range of . Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields, it was widely used in extreme Arctic conditions of Russia’s northern and eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate and where service facilities were very basic. With a service life of 45,000 hours (18,000 cycles) but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it is expected to continue operations until 2016, although noise regulations have seen services to western Europe and other areas restricted. In January 2010, Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years of service with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009.

Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft or by its extensive use in demanding conditions.

 

Development

The Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot’s requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104, the Antonov An-10 ‘Ukraine’ and the Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of with a range of while cruising at a speed of , or a payload of with a range of while cruising at . A take-off distance of at maximum take-off weight was also stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, and the Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 would be marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62. The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot’s anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s.The first project chief was Sergey Yeger but in 1964, Dmitryi S. Markov assumed that position. In 1975 he turned it over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt.

The Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight (mail) services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009, despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006. 1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which are still in service as of 14 December 2009.

 

Design

The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged similarly to those of the Boeing 727, but it is slightly larger than its American counterpart. Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle (number 2) engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a higher thrust-to-weight ratio than that of the 727, giving them superior performance, although at the expense of poorer fuel efficiency, which became an important factor in later decades as fuel costs grew.

The cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, and up to 180 passengers in high-density layout. The layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are also smaller than on its Boeing and Airbus counterparts. Furthermore, luggage space in the overhead compartments is very limited.

Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line. The British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a slightly smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing also has anhedral (downward sweep) which is a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have Dihedral (upward sweep). The anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but also have weaker dutch roll tendencies, eliminating the need for a yaw damper.

Like many other Soviet-built airliners, the Tu-154 has an oversized landing gear enabling it to land on unpaved runways, once common in rural areas of the Soviet Union. The aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings (a common Tupolev feature), plus a two-wheel nose gear unit. Soft oleo struts (shock absorbers) provide a much smoother ride on bumpy airfields than most airliners, which only very rarely operate on such poor surfaces.

The original requirement was to have a three-person flight crewcaptain, first officer and flight engineer – as opposed to 4/5-person crew on other Soviet airliners. A fourth crew member, a navigator, is usually also present in the former Soviet Union, due to union rules. Navigators are no longer trained and this profession will become obsolete with the retirement of older Soviet-era planes.

The plane’s avionics suite, for the first time in the Soviet Union, is built to American airworthiness standards. The latest variant (Tu-154M-100, introduced 1998) includes an NVU-B3 Doppler navigation system, a triple autopilot, which provides an automatic ILS approach according to ICAO category II weather minima, an autothrottle, a Doppler drift and speed measure system (DISS), “Kurs-MP” radio navigation suite and others. Modern upgrades normally include a TCAS, GPS and other modern systems, mostly American or EU-made.

Early versions of the Tu-154 cannot be modified to meet the current Stage III noise regulations and are banned from flying where those regulations are in force, such as Europe. The Tu-154M may use hush kits to meet Stage III and theoretically Stage IV. However, current European Union regulations forbid the use of hush kits to meet Stage IV. The Tu-154M would need to be re-engined to meet Stage IV within the EU, an extensive and potentially expensive upgrade.

==Variants== Many variants of this airliner have been built. Like its western counterpart, the 727, many of the Tu-154s in service have been hush-kitted, and some converted to freighters.

; Tu-154 : Tu-154 production started in 1970, while first passenger flight was performed at 9 February 1972. Powered by Kuznetsov NK-8-2 turbofans, it carried 164 passengers. About 42 were built.

; Tu-154A : The first upgraded version of the original Tu-154, the A model, in production since 1974, added center-section fuel tanks and more emergency exits, while engines were upgraded to higher-thrust Kuznetsov NK-8-2U. Other upgrades include automatic flaps/slats and stabilizer controls and modified avionics. Max. take-off weight – 94,000 kg (207,235 lb). There were 15 different interior layouts for the different domestic and international customers of the airplane, seating between 144 and 152 passengers. The easiest way to tell the A model from the base model is by looking at the spike at the junction of the fin and tail; this is a fat bullet on the A model rather than a slender spike on the base model.

; Tu-154B : As the original Tu-154 and Tu-154A suffered wing cracks after only a few years in service, a version with a new, stronger wing, designated Tu-154B, went into production in 1975. It also had an extra fuel tank in fuselage, extra emergency exits in the tail, and the maximum take-off weight increased to 98,000 kg (216,053 lb). Also important to Aeroflot was that the increased passenger capacity led to lower operating costs. As long as the airplane had the NK-8-2U engines the only way to improve the economics of the airplane was to spread costs across more seats. The autopilot was certified for ICAO Category II automatic approaches. Most previously built Tu-154 and Tu-154A were also modified into this variant, with the replacement of the wing. Max. take-off weight increased to 96,000 kg (211,644 lb). 111 were built.

; Tu-154B-1 : Aeroflot wanted this version for increased revenue on domestic routes. It carried 160 passengers. This version also had some minor modifications to fuel system, avionics, air conditioning, landing gear. 64 were built from 1977 to 1978.

; Tu-154B-2 : A minor modernization of Tu-154B-1. The airplane was designed to be converted from the 160 passenger version to a 180 passenger version by removing the galley. The procedure took about two and a half hours. Some of the earlier Tu-154B modified to that standard. Max. take-off weight increased to 98,000 kg (216,053 lb), later to 100,000 kg (220,462 lb). 311 aircraft were built, including VIP versions, a few of them are still in use.

; Tu-154S : The Tu-154S is an all-cargo or freighter version of the Tu-154B, using a strengthened floor, and adding a forward cargo door on the port side of the fuselage. The airplane could carry 9 Soviet PAV-3 pallets. Max. payload – 20,000 kg (44,092 lb). There were plans for 20 aircraft, but only nine aircraft were converted; two from Tu-154 model and seven from Tu-154B model. Trials were held in the early 1980’s and the aircraft was authorized regular operations in 1984. By 1997 all had been retired.

; Tu-154M : The Tu-154M and Tu-154M Lux are the most highly upgraded version, which first flew in 1982 and entered mass production in 1984. It uses more fuel-efficient Soloviev D-30KU-154 turbofans. Together with significant aerodynamic refinement, this led to much lower fuel consumption and therefore longer range, as well as lower operating costs. The aircraft has new double-slotted (instead of triple-slotted) flaps, with an extra 36-degree position (in addition to existing 15, 28 and 45-degree positions on older versions), which allows reduction of noise on approach. It also has a relocated auxiliary power unit and numerous other improvements. Maximum takeoff weight increased first to 100,000 kg (220,462 lb), then to 102,000 kg (224,872 lb). Some aircraft are certified to 104,000 kg (229,281 lb). About 320 were manufactured. Mass production ended in 2006, though limited manufacturing continued as of January 2009.(photo link) No new airframes have been built since the early 1990s, and production since then involved assembling airplanes from components on hand. Chinese Tu-154MD electronic intelligence aircraft carries a large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under its mainframe.

; Tu-154M-LK-1 : Cosmonaut Trainer. This was a Salon VIP aircraft modified to train cosmonauts to fly the Buran reusable spacecraft, the Soviet equivalent of the US Space Shuttle. The Tu-154 was used because the Buran required a steep descent, and the Tu-154 was capable of replicating that. The cabin featured trainee work-stations, one of which was the same as the Buran’s flightdeck. The forward baggage compartment was converted into a camera bay, because the aircraft was also used to train cosmonauts in observation and photographic techniques.

; Tu-154M-ON Monitoring Aircraft : Germany modified one of the Tu-154s it had on hand from the former East German Air Force into an observation airplane. This airplane was involved with the Open Skies inspection flights. It was converted at the Elbe Aircraft Plant (Elbe Flugzeugwerke) in Dresden, and flew in 1996. After two dozen monitoring missions, it was lost in a mid-air collision in 1997.

: The Russians also converted a Tu-154M to serve as an Open Skies Monitoring aircraft. They used the Tu-154M-LK-1, and converted it to a Tu-154M-ON. When the aircraft is not flying over North America, it is used to ferry cosmonauts around. The Chinese are also believed to have converted one Tu-154 to an electronic countermeasures aircraft.

; Tu-154M-100 : Design of this variant started in 1994, but the first aircraft were not delivered until 1998. It is an upgraded version with Western avionics, including the Flight Management Computer, GPS, EGPWS, TCAS, and other modern systems. The airplane could carry up to 157 passengers. The cabin featured an automatic oxygen system and larger overhead bins. Only three were produced, as payment of debts owed by Russia to Slovakia. Three aircraft were delivered in 1998 to Slovak Airlines, and sold back to Russia in 2003.

 

Operators

Civil operators

As of 26 march 2012 104 Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft (all variants) remained in airline service. As of 20 February 2011 in Iran, all the remaining numbers of this aircraft were grounded after two recent incidents. Major operators include:

 

Airline !! In Service
Aero Rent 2
Air Koryo 4
Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise 6
Aria Air 3
Aviaenergo 3
Azerbaijan Airlines 1
Belavia 3
Donavia 3
Gazpromavia 3
Iran Air Tours 14
Orenair 5
Kogalymavia 4
Kyrgyzstan Airlines 1
Rossiya (airline) Rossiya 5
Tajik Air 6
Tatarstan Airlines 5
Turan Air 5
UTair Aviation 19
Vladivostok Air 3
Yakutia Airlines 6
Yamal Airlines 6

 

Former civil operators

Past and present operators: Abakan Air Enterprise, Aerokuznetsk, Aeroservice Kazakhstan, Aerotrans, Aerovolga, Air Georgia, Air Great Wall, Air Savari, AJT, Amur Avia, Asian Star, Aviaprad, Aviaprima, AVL Arkhangel, Baltic Express, Barnaul Air, Bratsk Air, Chelal, Chernomoravia, China Glory, China Xinjiang, Chita Avia, Diamond Sakha, East Line, Elk Estonian, Georgia Air Prague, Gomel UAD, Imair, Iron Dragonfly, Khabarovsk Aero, Latpass, Macedonia Airservice, Murmansk Air, Nizhny Novgorod Air, Orbi Georgian, Sakha Avia, Surgut Avia, Tomsk Air, Transeuropean, Turanair, Tyumen Airlines, Ulyanovsk Airlines, Vitair. ; Afghanistan

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  • Government of Romania
  • TAROM

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Military operators

 

Current

; : Kazakhstan Government ; : Kyrgyzstan Government ; : Korean People’s Air Force (4 Tu-154B-2 leased from Air Koryo) ; : People’s Liberation Army Air Force ; : Russian Air Force ; : Slovak Government Flying Service

 

Former

; : Bulgarian Air Force One 154B retired 1988; one 154M retired April 2010, replaced by A319 CFM ; : Czechoslovakian Air Force (passed on to successor states) ; : Czech Air Force (replaced by Airbus A319CJ) ; : Cuban Air Force – retired ; : East German Air Force (passed on to FRG) ; : Luftwaffe (taken over from East Germany; 1 lost in mid-air collision, the other one sold) ; : Polish Air Force – 1 Tu-154M was retired in 2011, 1 Tu-154M crashed in 2010. ; : Mongolian Air Force – retired ; : Military of Turkmenistan – 2 Tu-154B-2 retired ; : Ukrainian Air Force – retired ; : Soviet Air Force (passed on to successor states) ; : Military of Uzbekistan – retired, replaced by Boeing 767

Incidents and accidents

As of January 2011, since 1970 there have been 110 serious incidents involving the Tu-154, and 69 hull losses, 30 of which did not involve fatalities. Of the fatal incidents, six resulted from terrorist or military action (two other war-time losses were non fatal) including an accidental missile shoot-down by Ukraine, several from poor runway conditions in winter (including one in which the airplane struck snow plows on the runway), cargo overloading in the lapse of post-Soviet federal safety standards, and mid-air collisions due to faulty air traffic control. Other incidents resulted from mechanical problems (two cases prior to 2001), running out of fuel on unscheduled routes, pilot errors (including flight training for new crews), and cargo fires. The Tu-154 is described as having an average (or better than expected) safety record considering its length of service and heavy use in demanding conditions where other airliners are unable to operate. On January 2, 2011, Russia’s Federal Transport Oversight Agency advised airlines to stop using remaining examples of the Tu-154 (B variant) until the fatal fire incident in Surgut had been investigated. Its operation in Iran, which is subject to an aircraft parts embargo, ceased in February 2011 due to a number of incidents involving the type (almost 9% of all Tu-154 losses have occurred in Iran) In 2010 there were two fatal losses of the Tu-154 due to pilot error and/or weather conditions (a Polish presidential jet attempting to land at an airfield in heavy fog and a Russian-registered plane that suffered engine stall after a crew member inactivated a fuel transfer pump). Following these accidents, in March 2011 the Russian Federal Bureau of Aviation recommended a withdrawal of remaining Tu-154M from service. In December 2010, Uzbekistan Airwaysalso declared that it will cease to operate Tu-154s from 2011.

date(dd.mm.yyyy) Tail number Location Fatalities Brief description
19.02.1973 CCCP-85023 Prague 66/100 Landed 470 m short of the runway
03.1973 n.d. near Kiev 0/n.d. Crashed
07.05.1973 CCCP-85030 Vnukovo 0/6 Crashed during training flight
10.07.1974 SU-AXB Cairo 6/6 Crashed during training flight
HA-LCI Beirut 60/60 Crashed in the sea on final approach in clear weather, allegedly shot down by one or two air to air missiles fired by either IDF or SDF forces.
01.06.1976 CCCP-85102 Malabo 46/46 Crashed into a mountain on final approach
1976 CCCP-85020 Kiev 0/n.d. Rough landing, written off. Now in museum
02.12.1977 LZ-BTN Benghazi 59/165 Unable to land in dense fog the plane ran out of fuel searching another airfield and crash-landed
23.03.1978 LZ-BTB near Damascus 4/4 Crashed on final approach
19.05.1978 CCCP-85169 Tver oblast 4/134 Fuel supply turned off due to flight engineer error, crash-landed in field
18.02.1978 CCCP-85087 Novosibirsk 0/n.d. Fire onboard
01.03.1980 CCCP-85103 Orenburg 0/161 Rough landing
07.07.1980 CCCP-85355 Alma-Ata 164/164 Crashed at take-off
07.08.1980 YR-TPH 1/168 Ditched 300 m short of runway
08.10.1980 CCCP-85321 0/n.d. Rough landing
13.06.1981 CCCP-85029 Bratsk 0/n.d. Overran on landing, fuselage broke into two
16.11.1981 CCCP-85480 Norilsk 99/167 Rough landing 470 m short of runway due to crew errors
21.10.1981 HA-LCF Prague 0/81 Rough landing due to crew error
CCCP-85243 Omsk 4+174/179 Collided with maintenance vehicles on landing due to controller error
23.12.1984 CCCP-85338 Krasnoyarsk 110/110 Engine fire and hydraulics fault
CCCP-85311 Uchkuduk 200/200 Overloaded plane stalled and crashed due to crew errors
1986 7O-ACN Aden n.d. Overran on landing, never repaired
21.05.1986 CCCP-85327 Domodedovo 0/175 Deformation of fuselage due to crew errors during flight
18.01.1988 CCCP-85254 Krasnovodsk 11/143 Rough landing, plane broke into two
08.03.1988 CCCP-85413 Vetschyovo 9/n.d. Blown up by hijackers (Ovechkin family)
24.09.1988 CCCP-85479 Aleppo 0/168 Broke into two on landing, was caught by wind shear
24.09.1988 CCCP-85617 Norilsk 0/n.d. Rough landing, turned into training mock-up
13.01.1989 CCCP-85067 Monrovia 0/n.d. Aborted take-off and runway overrun due to overloading
09.02.1989 YR-TPJ Bucharest 5/5 Crashed at take-off due to engine failure
20.10.1990 CCCP-85268 Kutaisi 0/171 Nosegear collapsed due to overloading
17.11.1990 CCCP-85664 Czech republic 0/6 Fire onboard, the plane burned out after emergency landing
23.05.1991 CCCP-85097 Leningrad 2+13/178 Rough landing, nosegear collapsed and plane broke into two
14.09.1991 CU-T1227 Mexico City 0/112 Overran on landing
05.06.1992 LZ-BTD Varna 0/130 Overran on landing in heavy rain
18.06.1992 RA-85282 Bratsk 1+0/0 Burned out during refueling
18.06.1992 RA-85234 Bratsk 0/0 Burned out in the same incident
20.07.1992 4L-85222 Tbilisi 4+24/24 Crashed at take-off due to overloading
01.08.1992 YA-TAP Kabul 0/0 Destroyed in the airport by mortar fire
05.09.1992 UR-85269 Kiev 0/147 Rough landing with left gear still retracted
13.10.1992 RA-85528 Vladivostok 0/67 The plane was unable to take-off due to overloading
05.12.1992 EK-85105 Erevan 0/154 Overran on landing
19.01.1993 UK-85533 Delhi 0/165 Rough landing due to crew error
08.02.1993 EP-ITD near Tehran 2+131/131 Mid-air collision with Su-22
22.09.1993 4L-85163 Sukhumi 108/132 Shot down by missile
23.09.1993 4L-85359 Sukhumi 0/0 Damaged by shelling, never repaired
25.12.1993 RA-85296 Grozny 0/172 Rough landing, nosegear collapsed. Destroyed by air strike in 1994
03.01.1994 RA-85656 Irkutsk 1+125/125 Engine fire at take-off, hydraulics failed
B-2610 Xian 160/160 Disintegrated in mid-air due to errors in auto-pilot settings
21.01.1995 UP-85455 Karachi 0/117 The plane was unable to take-off due to overloading
07.12.1995 RA-85164 near Khabarovsk 98/98 Asymmetrical fuel supply from wing tanks, the captain mistakenly increased the right heel and the plane crashed
RA-85621 Longyearbyen 141/141 Crashed in the mountain on final approach due to crew error
13.09.1997 11+02 Namibia 24/24 Mid-air collision with USAF C-141
15.12.1997 EY-85281 85/86 Landed short of runway, crew error
29.08.1998 CU-T1264 Quito 10+70/91 Aborted take-off, overran and caught fire
24.02.1999 B-2622 Ruian 61/61 Crashed on final approach due to technical failure
HA-LCR Saloniki 0/76 Accidental gear-up touchdown during the landing at Thessaloniki, skidded on runway, but able to take off and land normally after a go-around.
RA-85845 Irkutsk 145/145 Stalled and crashed on final approach due to crew errors
RA-85693 Black sea 78/78 Allegedly shot down by stray Ukrainian missile
12.02.2002 EP-MBS Khorremabad 119/119 Crashed on final approach
20.02.2002 EP-LBX Mashhad 0/n.d. Rough landing, sent to Vnukovo for repair where a nosegear collapsed
RA-85816 2+69/69 Mid-air collision with Boeing 757 of DHL Aviation due to controller error
RA-85556 Millerovo 46/46 Exploded in mid-air by suicide bomber
RA-85185 near Donetsk 170/170 Stalled and crashed due to attempt to fly over storm front at critical altitude
01.09.2006 EP-MCF Mashhad 29/147 The tyre blew out on landing, the plane skidded off the runway and caught fire
30.06.2008 RA-85667 St Petersburg 0/112 Engine fire at take-off, take off was aborted and the plane written off
EP-CPG near Qazvin 168/168 Engine fire and explosion, the plane lost control and crashed
RA-85787 Mashhad 0/170 Rough landing, the plane broke up and caught fire
101 Smolensk 96/96 Crashed on final approach in thick fog on an airfield with no ILS. President Lech Kaczyński and other high ranking officials were onboard and died in the crash.
RA-85684 0/81 Emergency landing at remote airfield after general electrical failure at 34,800 ft, overran the small runway and sustained minor damage with no injuries. In March 2011 it was flown back to Samara for structural inspection.
RA-85744 2/170 An emergency landing after two engines failed shortly after take-off; full of fuel. Overran the runway and broke up into three. The accident investigation revealed that a crew member had mistakenly switched off a fuel transfer pump thereby causing fuel-starvation and subsequent engine stall
RA-85588 3/124 Fire onboard and subsequent explosion while taxiing for take-off, all three engines running.

 

Specifications

{| style=”width:60%; text-align: center; font-size:95%;” |- style=”background:#DDDD;” !Measurement !Tu-154B-2 !Tu-154M |- style=”background:#eee;” |Cockpit crew || colspan=2 | Three/Four |- style=”background:#eee;” |Seating capacity || colspan=2 | 114–180 |- style=”background:#eee;” |Length || colspan=2 | |- style=”background:#eee;” |Wingspan || colspan=2 | |- style=”background:#eee;” |Wing area || colspan=2 | |- style=”background:#eee;” |Height || colspan=2 | |- style=”background:#eee;” |Maximum take-off weight ||| – ||| – |- style=”background:#eee;” |Empty weight ||| ||| |- style=”background:#eee;” |Maximum speed || colspan=2 | 950 km/h (510 kn) |- style=”background:#eee;” |Range fully loaded || || |- style=”background:#eee;” |Range with max fuel || || |- style=”background:#eee;” |Service ceiling || colspan=2 | |- style=”background:#eee;” |Engine (x 3) ||| Kuznetsov NK-8-2U ||| Soloviev D-30KU-154|- style=”background:#eee;” |Max. thrust (x 3) ||| 90 kN (20,000 lbf) each ||| 103 kN (23,148 lbf) each |}

See also

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References

 

Bibliography

Dmitriy Komissarov, ”Tupolev Tu-154, The USSR’s Medium-Range Jet Airliner”, (Hinckley, UK, 2007) ISBN 11857802411

  • Yefin Gordon and Vladimir Rigmant, ”OKB Tupolev, A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft”, translated by Alexander Boyd, edited by Dmitriy Komissarov (Hinckley, UK, 2005) ISBN 1-85780-214-4

 

External links

Photos

 

Category:Soviet airliners 1960–1969 Category:Soviet military transport aircraft 1960–1969 Tu-154 Tu-154 Category:1972 introductions

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This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase “”the Great””, or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. Other languages have their own suffixes such as ”e Bozorg” and ”e azam” in Persian and Urdurespectively.In Persia, the title “the Great” at first seems to be a colloquial version of the Old Persian title “Great King”. This title was first used by the conqueror Cyrus II of Persia.The Persian title was inherited by Alexander III of Macedon (336–323 BC) when he conquered the Persian Empire, and the epithet “Great” eventually became personally associated with him. The first reference (in a comedy by Plautus) assumes that everyone knew who “Alexander the Great” was; however, there is no earlier evidence that Alexander III of Macedon was called “”the Great””.The early Seleucid kings, who succeeded Alexander in Persia, used “Great King” in local documents, but the title was most notably used for Antiochus the Great(223–187 BC).Later rulers and commanders began to use the epithet “the Great” as a personal name, like the Roman general Pompey. Others received the surname retrospectively, like the Carthaginian Hanno and the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great. Once the surname gained currency, it was also used as an honorific surname for people without political careers, like the philosopher Albert the Great.As there are no objective criteria for “greatness”, the persistence of later generations in using the designation greatly varies. For example, Louis XIV of France was often referred to as “The Great” in his lifetime but is rarely called such nowadays, while Frederick II of Prussia is still called “The Great”. A later HohenzollernWilhelm I – was often called “The Great” in the time of his grandson Wilhelm II, but rarely later. 

Rulers

Dionysius I, Greek tyrant of Syracuse

Gwanggaeto the Great, King of Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea

Raja Raja Chola I (c. 947-1014), Indian emperor of the Cholas.

Sejong the Great(1397–1450), Korean king

 

Religious figures

 

Other

 

See also

 

Notes

Category:Monarchs Great, List of people known as The Category:Greatest Nationals Category:Epithets

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name Düsseldorf International Airport
nativename Flughafn Düsseldorf International
image-width 200px
image2 Düsseldorf International Airport2.jpg
image2-width 200px
iata DUS
icao EDDL
Location of airport in North Rhine-Westphalia
type Public
operator Flughafen Düsseldorf GmbH
city-served Düsseldorf
hub
elevation-f 147
elevation-m 44.8
coordinates
website www.duesseldorf-international.de
metric-elev yes
metric-rwy yes
r1-number 05R/23L
r1-length-f 10,474
r1-length-m 3,192
r1-surface Concrete
r2-number 05L/23R
r2-length-f 10,809
r2-length-m 3,294
r2-surface Concrete
stat-year 2011
stat1-header Passengers
stat1-data 20,339,466
stat2-header Passenger change 09-10
stat2-data 7.1%
stat3-header Aircraft Movements
stat3-data 215,544
stat4-header Movements change 09-10
stat4-data 0.7%
footnotes Sources: Passenger Traffic, ADVGerman AIP at EUROCONTROL }}

Düsseldorf International Airport () is the largest airport in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and the third largest airport in Germany, handling 20 million passengers in 2011.

Düsseldorf International is located in Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, approximately north of downtown Düsseldorf, and some south-west of Downtown Essen. The airport is accessible via an extensive ground transportation infrastructure, including its own motorway-section – part of the Bundesautobahn 44 (which connects to Bundesautobahn 52, 57 and 3) – and two railway stations – one of which for high-speed, long-distance trains. Düsseldorf SkyTrain operates as an inter-terminal people-mover within the airport.

The airport serves as an airline hub for Air Berlin and Lufthansa, the airport’s largest and second-largest airlines – both offering about 300 daily flights to 53 destinations. Turkish Airlines is the largest foreign airline to operate from Düsseldorf International. The airport handles on average 750 takeoffs and landings per day with a total of 70 airlines offering flights to 186 non-stop-destinations.

 

The airport

Düsseldorf International Airport is the largest and primary airport for the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region — the largest metropolitan region in Germany and among the largest metropolitan areas of the world. The airport is located in Düsseldorf-Lohausen. Largest nearby business centres are Düsseldorf and Essen; other cities within a 20 km radius are Duisburg, Krefeld, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Neuss and Wuppertal. The airport extends over a compact of land – small in comparison to airports of a similar capacity – but also reason for Düsseldorf being known as an airport of short distances. The airport is workplace for more than 18,200 employees. With 18.99 million passengers passing through in 2010, the airport was the third busiest in Germany, after Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, and was the 20th busiest airport in Europe. Transfer passengers and those travelling on long-haul flights from the airport accounted for around 13% of all passengers in 2010. Düsseldorf International has two runways, which are 3,000 m and 2,700 m long. There are plans to extend the 3,000 m runway to 3,600 m, but up till now the town of Ratingen is blocking them, as it lies within the approach path of the runway.

107 aircraft parking positions are available. The current terminal building is capable of handling up to 22 million passengers per year. However, due to an agreement with residents in nearby Ratingen (the so called Angerlandvergleich), this capacity may not be reached within the next few years, as aircraft movements are restricted. Düsseldorf International Airport is able to handle the new superjumbo Airbus A380 aircraft. On 12 November 2006, the first A380 landed in Düsseldorf as part of a Lufthansa promotion flight.

 

Terminals

Düsseldorf International has three terminals connected by a central spine, even though the terminals are really more like concourses within a single terminal building.

Terminal A

Terminal A was opened in 1977 and has 16 gates (A01-A16) used by Lufthansa and Lufthansa Regional, its airline partners (Air Malta, Cimber Air, Cirrus Airlines) and Star Alliance members (Aegean Airlines, Air China, Austrian Airlines, Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, SAS Scandinavian Airlines, Spanair, EgyptAir, TAP Air Portugal and Swiss International Airlines). Terminal A houses a Lufthansa Business Lounge and a Lufthansa Senator Lounge.

Terminal B

Terminal B was opened in 1973 and has 11 gates (B01-B11) used mainly for domestic and EU-flights by Air Berlin and SkyTeam and Oneworld members (British Airways, KLM, Finnair, Iberia, Air France, and Czech Airlines). Also located within the terminal are charter carriers such as TUIfly and Condor Flugdienst. Terminal B houses an observation deck and airline lounges by Air France and British Airways.

Terminal C

Terminal C was opened in 1986 and has 8 gates (C01-C08) used exclusively for non-Schengen-flights by non-Star Alliance airlines. These are long-haul flights – among others – by Air Berlin, Delta Air Lines, Emirates, Mahan Air and Turkish Airlines. Terminal C has a direct access to Airport City’s maritimHotel and houses lounges by airberlin and Emirates.

Executive Terminal

Jet Aviationoperates a small terminal, solely for private and corporate customers.

Airport City

Since 2003, an 23 hectare large area south-west of the airport terminal is under redevelopment as Düsseldorf Airport City with an anticipated gross floor area of 250,000 m² to be completed by 2016. Already based at Düsseldorf Airport City are cooperate offices of Siemens and VDI, a large Porsche centre and showroom, a maritim Hotel and Congress Centre, a Sheraton Hotel and a cinema. Messe Düsseldorfis situated in close proximity to Düsseldorf Airport City (some ).

Ownership

Düsseldorf International is a public–private partnership with the following owners:

 

History

The first aviation event in the area was the landing of Zeppelin LZ3 on 19 September 1909 about south of the present airport. The present airport was opened on 19 April 1927, after two years of construction. Deutsche Luft Hansaopened routes to Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne and Geneva. With the start of the Second World War civil use of the airport ceased in September 1939 with the airfield being used by the military.At the end of the war the airport reopened for civil use in 1948. With the area being under British administration the first flights were operated by British European Airways to London Northolt. In 1950 the main runway was extended to 2475 metres.

In 1964 planning began for the construction of a new terminal, with capacity for 1.4 million passengers, and in 1969 the main runway was lengthened to 3000 metres.

In 1973 the new central building and the Terminal B were opened and in 1975 the railroad connection between Düsseldorf central station and the airport started operation. Terminal A was opened in 1977.

In 1986 Terminal C was opened and 8.22 million passengers used the airport – making it number two in Germany. By 1992 when a second runway was built 12.3 million passengers were using the airport.

Fire caused by welding work and insufficient structural fire protection broke out on the roof of terminal A on 11 April 1996, and 17 people died, mostly due to smoke inhalation, with many more hospitalised. Damage to the airport was estimated to be in the hundreds of millions. At the time, the fire was the biggest public disaster in the history of North Rhine-Westphalia. While repairs were ongoing, passengers were housed in big tents. In November Terminal C was completely redeveloped, with three lightweight construction halls serving as departure areas.

Also in 1997 construction began on the new inter-city railway station at the eastern edge of the airport. In 1998 the rebuilt Terminal A was reopened and the airport changed its name from “Rhine Ruhr airport” to “Düsseldorf International”. Reconstruction of the central building and Terminal B began.

The first stage in the “Airport 2000+” programme commenced in 1999 with the laying of a foundation stone for a underground parking garage under the new terminal.

The new Düsseldorf Airport station was opened in May 2000, with the capacity of 300 train departures daily. Sixteen million passengers used the airport that year; Düsseldorf is now the third biggest airport in Germany. The new departures hall and Terminal B were opened in July 2001 after 2½ years of construction time; the rebuilt Gebäude Ost was reopened.

In 2002 the inter-terminal shuttle bus service was replaced by the suspended monorail called the ”SkyTrain” connecting the terminal building with the InterCity train station. The monorail travels the 2.5 kilometres between the terminal and station at a maximum speed of 50 km/h. The system was developed by Siemens and is based on the similar H-Bahn operating with two lines on Dortmund university campus.

 

Airlines and destinations

 

 

Cargo airlines

 

Operations and statistics

Passenger numbers

! style=”width:75px”

+
Number of Passengers !! style=”width:150px”>Number of Movements !! style=”width:100px”| Freight (Tonnes)
2000 16,03 million 194,016 59,361
2001 15,40 million 193,514 51,441
2002 14,75 million 190,300 46,085
2003 14,30 million 186,159 48,419
2004 15,26 million 200,584 86,267
2005 15,51 million 200,619 88,058
2006 16,59 million 215,481 97,000
2007 17,83 million 227,899 89,281
2008 18,15 million 228,531 90,100
2009 17,79 million 214,024 76,916
2010 18,98 million 215,540 87,995
2011 20,39 million 215,544 ?

 

Busiest routes

+ Busiest Domestic and International Routes from Düsseldorf (2010)
! Rank ! City ! Passengers ! Top Carriers
1 1,532,121 Air Berlin, Lufthansa
2 930,315 Air Berlin, Eurowings, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine
3 899,499 Air Berlin, Condor, Lufthansa, TUIfly
4 812,334 Air Berlin, British Airways, EasyJet, Lufthansa
5 691,381 Air Berlin, Condor, Germania, German Sky Airlines, Lufthansa, Pegasus Airlines, Sky Airlines, SunExpress, TUIfly, XL Airways Germany

 

Ground transportation

The airport is connected to the Autobahn via the A44. Two railway stations serve the airport. The Long distance station is located 2.5 km from the terminal and is serviced by all categories of German rail types, including ICE trains. A fully automatic, suspended monorail called ”SkyTrain” connects the long distance station to the park houses and terminals. this service also connects the terminal to the outerlieing parking garages.

The airport also has its own S-Bahn station, Düsseldorf Airport Terminal station located below the terminal. It is serviced by the S11, which has its northern terminus there.

 

 

Airline lounges

  • Terminal A: Lufthansa Business Lounge & Lufthansa Senator Lounge
  • Terminal B: Air France Lounge, British Airways Terrace Lounge, Hugo Junkers Lounge (general)
  • Terminal C: airberlin Lounge, Emirates Lounge, Open Sky Lounge

 

Airport magazine

Das Magazin” is a magazine available for visitors and passengers travelling through Düsseldorf airport. It contains information about new airlines serving Düsseldorf, new destinations and routes, and other information about the airport itself and surrounding facilities. ”Das Magazin” is available at many shops and newsstands at the airport for free or via a paid subscription.

See also

Cologne Bonn Airport, an airport south from Düsseldorf, between the cities of Cologne and Bonn Dortmund Airport, an airport north-east from Düsseldorf, near the city of Dortmund Weeze Airport, an airport north-west from Düsseldorf, that is advertised by budget airlines as “Airport Düsseldorf Weeze”, or “Airport Düsseldorf Niederrhein”. A German court ruled the naming the airport after Düsseldorf would be misleading to passengers, however some budget airlines still use that name in advertisements outside of Germany.

 

References

 

External links

Düsseldorf International Airport Homepage

 

! Category:Airports in Germany Category:Buildings and structures in Düsseldorf Category:Buildings and structures in North Rhine-Westphalia Category:Düsseldorf Category:Transport in Düsseldorf Category:Transport in North Rhine-Westphalia Category:Economy of North Rhine-Westphalia Category:SIPEM people movers Category:Suspended monorails Category:Airport people mover systems

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Nicholas Bamforth BCL, MA (Oxon) is a Fellow in Law at Queen’s College, Oxford, and a lecturer in Law at the University of Oxford since 1999. He had previously worked at UCL and Cambridge. In 2003-4, he was a Hauser Global Research Fellow at New York University.In October 2006 he became an elected member of the Council of the University. From March 2010 to March 2011, he held the office of Junior Proctor of Oxford University, a post lasting for one year. He has commented from time to time in the media concerning issues relating to university governance.His research and teaching interests lie in public (constitutional and administrative) law, human rights law, anti-discrimination law and philosophy of law.

Books

  • ”Sexuality, Morals and Justice” (London, Cassell, 1997)
  • ”Public Law in a Multi-layered Constitution” (ed. with P. Leyland, Oxford, Hart, 2003)
  • ”Patriarchal Religion, Sexuality and Gender” (with D. Richards, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008)
  • ”Discrimination Law: Theory and Context” (with C. O’Cinneide and M. Malik, London, Thomson/Sweet & Maxwell, 2008)

Working on a textbook for Oxford University Press (human rights law) and on a monograph on the public law-private law distinction.He was editor of ”Sex Rights”, the 2002 series of Oxford Amnesty Lectures concerning human rights, gender and sexuality (Oxford University Press, 2004).

 

External links

Bamforth, Nicholas Bamforth, Nicholas Bamforth, Nicholas Bamforth, Nicholas Category:British legal scholars Category:English lawyers

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Simon Lowe is a British actor who, amongst other British titles, has played series regulars in ”Bodies” (Dr. Tim Sibley) and ”The Grimleys” (Shane Titley) both of which were written by Jed Mercurio. He also played Derek Evans in ”EastEnders”. He is also the regular character, Sgt. James Collins in the British series, Doctors. In 2007 he portrayed the survivor of the Hindenburg disaster, “Joseph Spah”, in the British Channel 4 Drama, “Hindenburg The Untold Story”, directed by Sean Grundy. In the 2010 Channel 4 series, “Bloody Foreigners”, he playing the role of Jan Zumbach, of 303 squadron, and and in 2011 he made a single appearance in HBO‘s ”Game of Thrones” as a wine merchant.

Theatre work includes the portrayal of Dudley Moore in the show, “Pete and Dud; Come Again” that successfully toured Britain in 2007 with the British actor Gareth Tunley playing Peter Cook.

 

References

 

External links

Category:Living people Category:British television actors

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